African Art - Sculpture with a Deeper Meaning
Traditional African art is totally unusual and abstract; sculptures of human figures may have out of proportion elements such as a huge head on a small and tiny body and this is because the African artist were not interested in beauty, harmony and elegance, but their art’s purpose was strongly religious. Most traditional African tribal religions are based in one all-powerful God and in ancestor worship; as God could not be represented in an artistic work, the carving were made of ancestors. Another important African art form is the mask; also the mask, made of clay or wood, had religious purpose and it was usually destroyed after use for an unknown reason; that’s why so few things of African art has survived. The most important aspect of the work, that’s either a statue or a mask, is the artist’s ability to bring a life-force into his sculpture that came direct from God; in this was the spirits of the ancestors, through the God’s pleasure, get into the statues and only then the artist would have create a successful sculpture. The earliest known African carvings come from Nigeria; from 1100AD to 1300AD Nigerian civilization flourished and many beautiful terracotta sculptures have been discovered as a symbol of their prosperous period.


Make hexagons come alive for children by showing how six-sided shake appear naturally in the environment.
Show kids the beauty of hexagons in the environment while teaching about this interesting six-sided shape. While it is easy to recognize shapes such as a circle, square, triangle, crescent, and star in the environment, teachers may be challenged to find ways to teach about hexagons that may help children remember this amazing shape and its unique appearance in nature.
Honey bee hives have multiple hexagonal cells; this shape is very practical to the bees because it enables them to store more honey and it takes not so much wax to create it. Bees makes a hive by chewing wax; when wax becomes soft, the bees create their own honeycomb in which they store honey, nectar, pollen and also larvae.
Turtle’s hell is usually a fusion of sixty bones; the top part of the shell that is shaped like a dome, has hexagonal shapes in many species of turtle and is called the “carapace”. Turtle’s shells provide protection from other species of animals and from any type of dangers.
According to NASA’s online article, a movie of the north pole of Saturn reveals that an hexagonal wave feature emerges as the haze and clouds spin at Saturn’s north pole.
Also symmetrical six-sided snowflakes makes hexagon shapes; it seems that snowflakes are a combination of snow crystals involving from two to hundreds of snow crystals. They are usually hexagonal and symmetrical but their shapes may be various depending on different factor as the movement of the air, the amount of water in the air, the speed of the wind and of the falling crystals.
Although hexagon has a pretty complex design, it’s beautiful and unique feature can be found in several natural settings. Even if hexagon are is not prevalent as some of the simpler shapes, it’s design is usually design for unique and special purpose in the natural environment and lends itself well to teaching about animals, geography and other practical educational topics. .

Vocabulary:
1.hives= a colony of bees living in such a structure.
2.haze= atmospheric moisture, dust, smoke, and vapor that diminishes visibility
3.reveals= to make known something concealed or secret.to bring to view, to show
(concealed means hide)
4.crescent= the figure of the moon as it appears in its first or last quarter, with concave and convex edges terminating in points.

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Historical Article
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character.” This is an excerpt took from Martin Luther King speech, that made him become a living legend. Martin Luther King was a blessing for all African Americans because he fought for all his life against blacks racial discrimination. Since he was a kid he was exposed to harshness of racism against African Americans; he was forbidden to play with his white friends, to go to the same school and he also couldn’t take the same busses as they took. While he was experiencing these events in the South, to where he belongs, while spending time in the North, Connetticut, he notes how blacks and whites coexisted peacefully; this strengthened his contempt for racial segregation. The fight against racism was marked by several events that led to the success that he unfortunately couldn’t see. The Montgomery Bus Boycott took place because at that time a new law imposed that blacks had to give up their seat on the bus for white passengers; when Rosa Parks, and African women, refused to do that, she was arrested. As a consequence of this incident, the public transit system of Montgomery was boycotted by a group of activists led by Martin Luther King. This situation lasted for over a year until M. L. King was arrested. This was anyway a successful battle because 3 years later this law was abolished. From the success of this boycott, the SCLC organization was formed, where King applied the concept of Christianity and the policies of Mahatma Gandhi such as non-violence and non-compliance; he gave lectures all across the US where he discussed all the issues that plagued African Americans, and he became the idol of the civil rights movement. The march on Washington took place August 1963, in which people were demanding for equality of justice for all American citizens, end of the racial segregation in public schools and in employment and to stop the brutality of the police towards civil rights activists. It was here that M. L. King read his speech “I have a dream”. In 1964 the Civil Rights Act passed and King was awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize. M. L. King has been criticized overtime from lots of people that saw in him a Communist and a subversive, but it’s only thanks to his efforts that nowadays an African American man, Barack Obama, leads the United States of America as its president.

Excerpt = a passage taken from a literary work
Contempt = the feeling or attitude of regarding someone or something as inferior or worthless
To plague = to afflict, to cause suffering or unhappiness
Non-compliace = to disagree to be under somebody’s rules



((Italian student))